Scientific Contributions Before European Renaissance, 700 - 1500 C.E.

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Science Civilization History Andalusia-Spain The Americas The Qur'an Muhammad pbuh
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Surah Kahf, Ayaat 1-10

The Glorious Qur'an: English Narration of its Meaning

Surah Ar-Rahman (The Beneficent, The Mercy Giving), Ayat 33-36
O company of jinn and men, if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth,
then penetrate (them)! Ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) sanction.
Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?
There will be sent, against you both, heat of fire and flash of brass, and ye will not escape.
Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

English Narration of the Meaning of Surah Ar-Rahman
Surah 55, Ayat 1-16     Surah 55, Ayat 31-36     Surah 55, Ayat 31-78

Welcome to the web page on Muslim contribution to humanity and Islamic Civilization. This page is dedicated to those Muslims whose multi-disciplinary contributions sparked the light of learning and productivity and without whom the European Renaissance would not have begun and come to maturity. Their contributions are rarely mentioned in formal education, and if at all mentioned their names are Latinized or changed with the effect of obscuring their identity and origin, and their association with the Islamic Civilization.


Quotations from Famous Historians of Science
Translators of Scientific Knowledge in the Middle Ages
Latinized and English Names of Arabic Origin
Cities of Muslim Scientists, 700 TO 1500 C.E.
Qur'an and Scientific Knowledge
Islamic World and the Western Renaissance
Translations of Muslim Scientific Books into Latin and European Languages
Setting the Record Straight: Islamic Science

O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). Qur'an 49:13


Quotations on Islamic Civilization
Quotations on Moorish (Islamic) Civilization
Quotations on Muslims in India
Morality in War
The Capitals and Major Cities
Hospitals and Medical Schools
Tolerance in Islam
Causes of Rise and Decline
Coins of the Anglo-Saxon King Offa Rex
Muslim History
Muslims in the Indian Subcontinent
Russification of Central Asia
Muslims in China and South-East Asia
Muslims in the Former U.S.S.R.
Muslims in Europe
Muslims in Africa
Muslim Coins
Taj Mahal

ANDALUSIA (Spain and Portugal)

Quotations on Moorish (Islamic) Civilization
The Treaty of Orihuela, 713 C.E.
Gothic Princess Sara
The Falcon of Andalus
Andalusia (Spain)
Cordoba    Toledo
az-Zahra and Other Andalusian Palaces
The Mudejares and Moriscos
The Treaty of Granada, 1492 C.E.
The Next Fifteen Years
Sixteenth Century Spain
Islam and Columbus' America
Names of Arabic Origin in Spain, Portugal and the Americas
Spain's Islamic Legacy: A Glimpse from a Muslim's Travelogue


Muslims in the Americas Before Columbus
Muslim Legacy in Early Americas
The Melungeons
Sequoyah and Cherokee Syllabary
Islam in America, 1893
Names of Arabic Origin in Spain, Portugal and the Americas

Taj Mahal

Built by a Muslim, Emperor Shah Jahan at Agra, India. Completed in 1648 C.E.
An "Elegy in Marble" or a "Dream" in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.

Allah: Allah is the proper name in Arabic for The One and Only God, The Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It is used by the Arab Christians and Jews for the God (Eloh-im in Hebrew; 'Allaha' in Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus, pbuh). The word Allah does not have a plural or gender. Allah does not have any associate or partner, and He does not beget nor was He begotten. The abbreviation 'SWT' usually follows when Allah is mentioned, and it means 'Glory Be To Him.'

Surah 2, Ayat 255-56: Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.
There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower.


      Muhammad is no more than an Apostle: many were the Apostles that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will you then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.   Qur'an 3:144
      Allah forgiveth not (the sin of) joining other gods (partners) with Him: but He forgiveth whom He pleaseth other sins than this: one who joins other gods (partners) with Allah hath strayed far far away (from the right path).   Qur'an 4:116
      O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even though it be against yourselves or your parents and kinsfolk, whether one is rich or poor, for God takes precedence over either of them. Follow not, then, the lusts, lest you swerve; and if you distort or turn away, verily God is aware of all that you do!   Qur'an 4:135
      All that they do is noted in (their) Books (of Deeds): Every matter small and great is on record.   Qur'an 54:52-53
      Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsels? Indeed (We do) and Our Messengers are by them to record.   Qur'an 43:80

Fourteen Precepts of Wisdom from the Holy Qur'an
Food for Thought: Ayat (Verses) from the Holy Qur'an
Liberate, Emancipate and Marry Slaves
The Amazing Qur'an (with subject index)
Prophets in the Holy Qur'an
Jesus, The Son of Mary (pbut)
Mary and Jesus (peace be upon them)
Qur'an and Scientific Knowledge
O Mankind!
O You Who Believe!
O People of the Book!
Our Lord! (Rabbana)
Topic Index of the Qur'an
Introducing Islam
The Book
"The Author"
Translation: Tried & True?
English Translations of the Holy Qur'an (1649-1986)
The Meaning of the Glorious Qur'an in English - Audio


    ... All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood.... O People! No Prophet or Apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People! and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur an and my Sunnah (i.e., sayings, deeds, and approvals) and if you follow these you will never go astray..."     Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon

What Non-Muslims Say About Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
Prophet Muhammad's Charter to the Monks of St. Catherine Monastery
Prophet Muhammad's Treaty with Christians of Najran
Biography of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (with Links to Comparative Religion)
The Last Prophet and Qur'an in Previously Revealed Scriptures
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in Hindu Scriptures
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in Parsi Scriptures
The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (632 C.E.)
Major Events in the Life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
Prophet Muhammad's Treaty With the Jews and Non-muslims (622 C.E.)
Prophet Muhammad's Letters to Kings (628 C.E.)
Negus, King of Abyssinia (615 C.E.)
Chakrawati Farmas, King of Malabar, India
Heraclius, Byzantine Emperor (628 C.E.)
Muqawqis, Ruler of Egypt (628 C.E.)
Chosroes II, King of Persia (628 C.E.)


"I command you to ten precepts: Slay not a woman nor a child, nor an aged man, cut not down a tree that beareth fruit, and lay not waste a cultivated land, and destroy not a sheep, nor a camel save for food, and lop not a date tree nor burn it, and conceal not plunder and be not faint of heart."         Caliph Abu Bakr's instruction to Muslim army leaving for the Syrian front.

Abu Bakr (ra), The First Caliph (632 -634 C.E.)
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (ra), The Second Caliph (634 - 644 C.E.)


Muslims and the Oil Industries (7th - 19th Century)


Reflections from the Hajj
Siyam (Fasting) During Ramadan
Fasting During Ramadan
Blessings of Taraweeh Salat
Rules and Regulations for Congregational Salat
Rules and Regulations for Eid Salat
Jesus, The Son of Mary (pbut)
Mary and Jesus (peace be upon them)
Liberate, Emancipate and Marry Slaves
A Brief Account of the Crusades
Introducing Islam
Prophets in Prayer
Sir Isaac Newton on the Bible
Missionary Christianity - A Muslim's Analysis
The Ka'bah: Its Size and History
Makkah-Arafat Hajj Route
The Prophet's Mosque
Adhan (Call to Prayer) at Haram (3 min.)
Refutation of Christian Polemics
Allama Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address
Allama Muhammad Iqbal
Maulana Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall
Muhammad Alexander Russel Webb
The Star and the Crescent
Kedar and Ancient Arabs
Orientalism, Misinformation and Islam
History in the Service of Imperialism
Symptoms of Weak Faith
Islamic Lunar Calendar (2008-2010)
Science of Moon-sighting
Moonsighting, Islamic Calendar, Prayer Schedule
Islamic Card Centre - Eid Cards
Qur'an Audio

This is a partial list of some of the leading Muslims. Major Muslim contributions continued beyond the fifteenth century. Contributions of more than one hundred other major Muslim personalities can be found in several famous publications by Western historians.   Biographies are available in the Islamic Civilization E-book.
Jabir Ibn Haiyan  (Geber) Chemistry (Father of Chemistry) Died 803 C.E.
Al-Asmai Zoology, Botany, Animal Husbandry. 740 - 828
Al-Khwarizmi (Algorizm) Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography. (Algorithm, Algebra, calculus) 770 - 840
'Amr ibn Bahr Al-Jahiz Zoology, Arabic Grammar, Rhetoric, Lexicography 776 - 868
Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (Alkindus) Philosophy, Physics, Optics, Medicine, Mathematics, Metallurgy. 800 - 873
Thabit Ibn Qurrah (Thebit) Astronomy, Mechanics, Geometry, Anatomy. 836 - 901
'Abbas Ibn Firnas Mechanics of Flight, Planetarium, Artificial Crystals. Died 888
Ali Ibn Rabban Al-Tabari Medicine, Mathematics, Caligraphy, Literature. 838 - 870
Al-Battani (Albategnius) Astronomy, mathematics, Trigonometry. 858 - 929
Al-Farghani (Al-Fraganus) Astronomy, Civil Engineering. C. 860
Al-Razi (Rhazes) Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox, Chemistry, Astronomy. 864 - 930
Al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius) Sociology, Logic, Philosophy, Political Science, Music. 870 - 950
Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masu'di Geography, History. Died 957
Al-Sufi (Azophi) Astronomy 903 - 986
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahravi (Albucasis) Surgery, Medicine. (Father of Modern Surgery) 936 - 1013
Muhammad Al-Buzjani Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry, Trigonometry. 940 - 997
Ibn Al-Haitham (Alhazen) Physics, Optics, Mathematics. 965 - 1040
Al-Mawardi (Alboacen) Political Science, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Ethics. 972 - 1058
Abu Raihan Al-Biruni Astronomy, Mathematics. (Determined Earth's Circumference) 973-1048
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy. 981 - 1037
Al-Zarqali (Arzachel) Astronomy (Invented Astrolabe). 1028 - 1087
Omar Al-Khayyam Mathematics, Poetry. 1044 - 1123
Al-Ghazali (Algazel) Sociology, Theology, Philosophy. 1058 - 1111
Fall of Muslim Toledo (1085), Corsica and Malta (1090), Provence (1050), Sicily (1091) and Jerusalem (1099). Several Crusades. First wave of devastation of Muslim resources, lives, properties, institutions, and infrastructure over a period of one hundred years. Refer to Muslim History.       Translators of Scientific Knowledge in the Middle Ages
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya (Ibn Bajjah) Philosophy, Medicine, Mathematics, Astronomy, Poetry, Music. 1106 - 1138
Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) Surgery, Medicine. 1091 - 1161
Al-Idrisi (Dreses) Geography (World Map, First Globe). 1099 - 1166
Ibn Tufayl, Abdubacer Philosophy, Medicine, Poetry. 1110 - 1185
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Theology. 1128 - 1198
Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius) Astronomy Died 1204
Second wave of devastation of Muslim resources, lives, properties, institutions, and infrastructure over a period of one hundred and twelve years. Crusader invasions (1217-1291) and Mongol invasions (1219-1329). Crusaders active throughout the Mediterranean from Jerusalem and west to Muslim Spain. Fall of Muslim Cordoba (1236), Valencia (1238) and Seville (1248). Mongols devastation from the eastern most Muslim frontier, Central and Western Asia, India, Persia to Arab heartland. Fall of Baghdad (1258) and the end of Abbasid Caliphate. Two million Muslims massacred in Baghdad. Major scientific institutions, laboratories, and infrastructure destroyed in leading Muslim centers of civilization. Refer to "A Chronology of Muslim History Parts III, IV."
Ibn Al-Baitar Pharmacy, Botany Died 1248
Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi Astronomy, Non-Euclidean Geometry. 1201 - 1274
Jalal Al-Din Rumi Sociology 1207 - 1273
Ibn Al-Nafis Damishqui Anatomy 1213 - 1288
Al-Fida (Abdulfeda) Astronomy, Geography, Histrory. 1273 - 1331
Muhammad Ibn Abdullah (Ibn Battuta) World Traveler. 75,000 mile voyage from Morocco to China and back. 1304 - 1369
Ibn Khaldun Sociology, Philosophy of History, Political Science. 1332 - 1395
Ulugh Beg Astronomy 1393 - 1449
Third wave of devastation of Muslim resources, lives, properties, institutions, and infrastructure. End of Muslim rule in Spain (1492). More than one million volumes of Muslim works on science, arts, philosophy and culture was burnt in the public square of Vivarrambla in Granada. Colonization began in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Refer to "A Chronology of Muslim History Parts IV, V (e.g., 1455, 1494, 1500, 1510, 1524, and 1538)"
Two hundred years before a comparable development elsewhere, Turkish scientist Hazarfen Ahmet Celebi took off from Galata tower and flew over the Bosphorus. Logari Hasan Celebi, another member of the Celebi family, sent the first manned rocket, using 150 okka (about 300 pounds) of gunpowder as the firing fuel.
Tipu, Sultan of Mysore [1783-1799] in the south of India, was the innovator of the world's first war rocket. Two of his rockets, captured by the British at Srirangapatana, are displayed in the Woolwich Museum Artillery in London. The rocket motor casing was made of steel with multiple nozzles. The rocket, 50mm in diameter and 250mm long, had a range performance of 900 meters to 1.5 km.

The dates in the table are converted from the Islamic calendar (A.H.) which begins with Hejira, the migration of Prophet Muhammad (s) from Makkah to Medinah. The calendar is based on lunar monthly cycles. 1 A.H. = 622 C.E.

Copyright © 1997-2002 Dr. A. Zahoor
Portraits and Images: © Dr. A. Zahoor; Background Image: © Dr. H. Rahman and Dr. Zahoor
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